What is ArF gas?
An argon fluoride laser absorbs energy from a source, causing the argon gas to react with the fluorine gas producing argon monofluoride, a temporary complex, in an excited energy state: 2 Ar + F. 2 → 2 ArF.
What type of laser is an excimer laser?
An excimer laser, sometimes more correctly called an exciplex laser, is a form of ultraviolet laser which is commonly used in the production of microelectronic devices, semiconductor based integrated circuits or “chips”, eye surgery, and micromachining.
What is argon fluoride?
Argon fluoride (ArF) is currently the shortest wavelength laser that can credibly scale to the energy and power required for high gain inertial fusion.
How do gas lasers work?
A gas laser is a laser in which an electric current is discharged through a gas to produce coherent light. The gas laser was the first continuous-light laser and the first laser to operate on the principle of converting electrical energy to a laser light output.
Is krypton difluoride a gas?
The colorless solid decomposes at room temperature, but it can be stored indefinitely at –78 ºC. KrF2 is an extremely strong oxidizing and fluorinating agent. It can convert metallic gold to AuF5, metallic silver to AgF3, and xenon to XeF6. It can also oxidize chlorine and bromine to their +5 oxidation states.
What are uses of krypton?
Krypton is used commercially as a filling gas for energy-saving fluorescent lights. It is also used in some flash lamps used for high-speed photography. Unlike the lighter gases in its group, it is reactive enough to form some chemical compounds. For example, krypton will react with fluorine to form krypton fluoride.
How does the excimer laser work?
The excimer laser alters the refractive state of the eye by removing tissue from the anterior cornea through a process known as photoablative decomposition. This process uses ultraviolet energy from the excimer laser to disrupt chemical bonds in the cornea without causing any thermal damage to surrounding tissue.
What gases are used in lasers?
The most important examples for molecular gas lasers are described in the following: Carbon dioxide lasers (CO2 lasers) use a gas mixture of CO2, helium (He), nitrogen (N2), and possibly some hydrogen (H2), water vapor, and/or xenon (Xe) for generating laser radiation mostly at 10.6 μm.
How is neon gas used in lasers?
A helium-neon laser is based on a tube filled with a mixture of helium and neon gas. An electrical glow discharge excites helium atoms, which transfer their energy to neon atoms during the collisions.
What is argon Fluorohydride used for?
Stable only at very low temperatures, argon fluorohydride begins to decompose once it warms above -246°C (-411°F). Because of this limitation, argon fluorohydride has no uses outside of basic scientific research. It is used in electric light bulbs and in fluorescent tubes at a pressure of about 400 Pa.
Why are gases used in lasers?
A frequently used method is to primarily excite one species (e.g. helium) in the gas with the electric discharge to some metastable state and exploit an energy transfer process. For example, in helium–neon lasers, the metastable helium atoms transfer energy to neon atoms.
How much gas does a laser use?
It is not uncommon for a laser operation to use 100,000 cubic feet of nitrogen in a month. A market price $0.10 per 100 cubic feet of gas more than the estimate would cost $100 more each month—an amount that adds up over time.
What is krypton gas used for?
Krypton is used commercially as a filling gas for energy-saving fluorescent lights. It is also used in some flash lamps used for high-speed photography. Unlike the lighter gases in its group, it is reactive enough to form some chemical compounds.
What type of gas is krypton?
krypton (Kr), chemical element, a rare gas of Group 18 (noble gases) of the periodic table, which forms relatively few chemical compounds. About three times heavier than air, krypton is colourless, odourless, tasteless, and monatomic.
What is an excimer laser?
With its 193-nanometer wavelength, it is a deep ultraviolet laser, which is commonly used in the production of semiconductor integrated circuits, eye surgery, micromachining, and scientific research. “Excimer” is short for “excited dimer”, while “exciplex” is short for “excited complex”.
Which rare gas dimers show excimer laser action?
Historically, the rare gas dimer molecules, such as Xe 2, were the first to show excimer laser action, although self absorption, low gain, and poor optics in the VUV limited their utility. Other excimer-like species, such as metal halides, metal rare gas continua on the edge of metal atom resonance lines, and rare gas oxides were also studied.
Why do excimer lasers use short wavelengths of UV light?
The short wavelength UV energy from excimer lasers causes high levels of electronic excitation in irradiated materials leading to bond breaking and photoablation. The short wavelengths of the ultraviolet spectrum also provide a means for high resolution imaging.
How many joules does an excimer laser produce?
While electron-beam pumped excimer lasers can produce high single energy pulses, they are generally separated by long time periods (many minutes). An exception was the Electra system, designed for inertial fusion studies, which could produce a burst of 10 pulses each measuring 500 J over a span of 10 s.