What is an angiomyolipoma in the kidney?

A benign (noncancer) tumor of fat and muscle tissue that usually is found in the kidney. Angiomyolipomas rarely cause symptoms, but may bleed or grow large enough to be painful or cause kidney failure.

What causes angiomyolipoma of kidney?

Renal angiomyolipoma is caused by a genetic mutation to the TSC1 or TSC2 gene (tumor suppressor genes). They are responsible for producing tuberin, a protein that helps control cells’ growth and size. When the TSC genes mutate or change, it affects the production of tuberin, and cells may grow out of control.

How do you confirm angiomyolipoma?

The diagnosis of angiomyolipoma can only be confirmed by means of a tumour biopsy. However, as aggressive procedures should be avoided in TSC patients, it is preferable to first attempt a differential diagnosis using imaging techniques.

How serious is a angiomyolipoma?

How serious is an angiomyolipoma? Many people with angiomyolipoma don’t know they have the condition. If the tumor grows larger than about 4 centimeters (about the size of a walnut), it could cause bleeding (hemorrhage). This bleeding can be life-threatening if it’s not treated.

What is the treatment for angiomyolipoma of kidney?

Angiomyolipoma can be treated by the drug everolimus (Afinitor) that works by blocking the human target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein to affect many processes involved in cell growth. Researchers suggest that even if asymptomatic, angiomyolipoma that grows to 3 cm or more in diameter should be treated.

Should angiomyolipomas be removed?

In general, the prognosis of angiomyolipoma is good as long as the tumors don’t have dilated blood vessels or grow rapidly. However, the prognosis decreases if the tumor becomes very large or compromises the kidney’s function so that it may need to be removed or the patient may require dialysis.

What is kidney angiomyolipoma?

What is Kidney angiomyolipoma? Angiomyolipomas are common benign (noncancerous) tumors of the kidney composed of three types of cells: vascular cells, immature smooth muscle cells, and fat cells.

How is angiomyolipoma diagnosed?

The preliminary diagnosis of angiomyolipoma is usually done either incidentally while the patient is undergoing imaging tests for other reasons or directly by ultrasound, CT scan, and/or MRI scan. Urologists, radiologists, and emergency medicine physicians are often the first doctors to suspect and/or…

What is an epithelioid angiomyolipoma?

A special variant called an epithelioid angiomyolipoma is composed of more plump, epithelial-looking cells, often with nuclear atypia, that have a described risk of malignant behavior. This variant, unlike conventional AMLs, may mimic renal cell carcinoma 10. Metastases have also been described 9 .

Where are angiomyolipomas found in the body?

These benign tumors are mainly found in the kidney, but they can also be found occasionally in the liver, and rarely in the ovary, Fallopian tube, spermatic cord, palate, and colon. Older medical literature may refer to angiomyolipomas as hamartomas or choristomas.