What is the difference between splenomegaly and Hypersplenism?

Splenomegaly refers strictly to spleen enlargement, and is distinct from hypersplenism, which connotes overactive function by a spleen of any size. Splenomegaly and hypersplenism should not be confused. Each may be found separately, or they may coexist.

What happens to platelets in Hypersplenism?

In hypersplenism, 50–90% of platelets are retained in the enlarged spleen resulting in a reduction of platelets in the circulating blood. Furthermore, Aster demonstrated that the distribution of platelets returned to normal after splenectomy, which eliminated the retention of platelets by the splenic blood pool (8).

What does teardrop shaped blood cells mean?

The presence of teardrop-shaped cells may indicate: Myelofibrosis. Severe iron deficiency. Thalassemia major. Cancer in the bone marrow.

What happens in hypersplenism?

Hypersplenism is an overactive spleen. The spleen is an organ found in the upper left side of your abdomen. The spleen helps filter old and damaged cells from your bloodstream. If your spleen is overactive, it removes the blood cells too early and too quickly.

Why is there pancytopenia in hypersplenism?

This is a pancytopenia occurring in patients with an enlarged spleen. It is due to large numbers of cells being pooled and destroyed in the spleen’s reticulo-endothelial system, and haemodilution because of an increased plasma volume. It can present with symptoms of anaemia, infection, or bleeding.

What causes pencil cells?

Pencil cell type of elliptocyte: occur where there is iron-deficiency anaemia, thalassaemia trait and syndromes and in pyruvate kinase deficiency.

What does few Burr cells mean?

The presence of cells called burr cells may indicate: Abnormally high level of nitrogen waste products in the blood ( uremia )

Where are Howell-Jolly bodies found?

Howell-Jolly bodies occur where there is no spleen or an non-functioning spleen, referred to as asplenia. They are usually one of these at most in a red cell, round, dark purple to red in color and often located peripherally on the red blood cell.

What are Spherocytes?

Spherocytes are red blood cells that are sphere-shaped rather than the usual round doughnut shape. Spherocytes are more fragile than normal red cells and their presence is accompanied by anemias of varying severity.

What is the difference between burr cells and acanthocytes?

Acanthocytes, by contrast, have irregularly spaced thorn-like projections and little or no central pallor. Although Burr cells may be associated with diseases, such as uremia or pyruvate kinase deficiency, crenated cells that may be confused with true Burr cells are frequent artifacts.

Why are echinocytes formed?

Echinocytes form when the surface area of the outer lipid monolayer increases relative to the inner monolayer. Echinocytic transformation occurs in the presence of fatty acids, lysophospholipids, and amphiphatic drugs that distribute preferentially in the outer half of the lipid bilayer.

What causes Howell-Jolly bodies?

Howell-Jolly bodies are often seen when there is loss of splenic function as in congenital asplenia, after surgical removal, or in autosplenectomy in sickle cell anemia. They also can be found in hemolytic anemia. pernicious anemia, thalassemia, and leukemia.

How to view blood smears under a microscope?

Importantly, viewing blood smears under the microscope needs to be done shortly after blood collection employing sterile technique (**wearing gloves) from a disinfected site (wiping off 1st drop of blood). Using a high quality clean glass slide (flat, no distortions and corrosion resistant) of 75mm X 25mm and 1mm thickness is ideal.

What is the normal red blood cell morphology of hypersplenism?

Red blood cell morphology is generally normal except for teardrop forms and occasional spherocytosis. Reticulocytosis is usual. Treatment is directed at the underlying disorder. However, if hypersplenism is the only serious manifestation of the disorder (eg, Gaucher disease

What is hypersplenism and what causes it?

Essentially, any disorder that causes enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly) can cause hypersplenism. That’s because as your spleen becomes enlarged, it holds more and more blood cells. This includes damaged and healthy blood cells.

What is the best magnification to view blood smears?

Increasing in progression, it is best to view smears up to a total magnification of 1000x using the 10x ocular. Red blood cells will stain pink, platelets appear as small blue/purple and cytoplasmic granules stain pink to violet. White blood cells comprise Granulocytes which include Neutrophils,…