What is a back pressure turbine What are its applications?

The back pressure turbine is used for supplying process steam to the facilities in private-use power producers. This type of steam turbine supplies not only electricity but also steam to various process requirements.

What is called back pressure?

The back-pressure could be defined as the pressure within a system caused by fluid friction or an induced resistance to flow through the system. The necessary back-pressure is often created and controlled by a valve that is set to operate under the desired range of conditions.

What is back pressure turbine generator?

A back pressure turbine is simply a steam turbine used to generate electricity with relatively small decreases in steam pressure.

Where are back pressure turbines used?

Back-pressure turbines are commonly found at refineries, district heating units, pulp and paper plants, and desalination facilities where large amounts of low-pressure process steam are needed. The electric power generated by the back-pressure turbine is directly proportional to the amount of process steam required.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of back pressure steam turbine?

Relatively high overnight cost. Steam turbines are less efficient than reciprocating engines at part load operation. They have longer startup than gas turbines and surely than reciprocating engines. Less responsive to changes in power demand compared with gas turbines and with reciprocating engines.

What is back pressure explain its effect on plant performance?

It shows that efficiency of cycle decreases with increase in back pressure. Decreasing the cooling water temperature and hence pressure will result in increase power output for the same steam mass flow rate and constant fuel input. It also decreases the heat rate of power plant [5].

How does back pressure work?

Back pressure (or backpressure) is a resistance or force opposing the desired flow of fluid through pipes, leading to friction loss and pressure drop. The term back pressure is a misnomer, as pressure is a scalar quantity, so it has a magnitude but no direction.

What is back pressure in a condenser?

High condenser back pressure is the most obvious plant measurable that results in lost revenue or excess operating costs. Turbine exhaust back pressure is directly related to lost power output to the generator that converts mechanical energy to electrical power.

What are the two basic types of steam turbines?

Two types of steam turbines must be considered, condensing and noncondensing.

How does the back pressure affect the performance of the steam turbine?

Increasing the turbine backpressure increases the turbine isentropic and polytropic efficiencies and the steam mass flow rate. … polytropic efficiencies and the steam mass flow rate. Accordingly, the optimum backpressure lies at 2.1 bar.

Is back pressure turbine condensing?

In a condensing turbine, the heat that is not absorbed goes on to be condensed and represents wasted energy. In a non-condensing, (i.e., back-pressure) turbine, the heat that is not absorbed is used effectively in a downstream process.

How does a back pressure steam turbine work?

In a backpressure steam turbine, energy from high-pressure inlet steam is efficiently converted into electricity, and low-pressure exhaust steam is provided to a plant process. The turbine exhaust steam has a lower temperature than the superheated steam created when pressure is reduced through a PRV.

What is the difference between back pressure turbine and condensing turbine?

A condensing turbine does not differ much from a back-pressure turbine in respect of its’ overall dimensions, steam values (with the exception of outlet pressure), delivery time and price. The steam condensing equipment requires some additional “balance of plant” investments plus the availability of cooling water.

What are the advantages and disadvantages back pressure steam turbine?

Does back need pressure?

Many car enthusiasts interpret exhaust pressure as exhaust backpressure, and according to many, this backpressure is essential for an engine to make peak power.

Why steam turbines are preferred over steam engines?

The superheated steam entering the turbine loses its pressure (enthalpy) moving through the blades of the rotors, and the rotors move the shaft to which they are connected. Steam turbines deliver power at a smooth, constant rate, and the thermal efficiency of a steam turbine is higher than that of a reciprocating engine.

What is the purpose of a steam turbine?

Root. The root is a constructional feature of turbine blades,which fixes the blade into the turbine rotor.

  • Profile. The profile converts the kinetic energy of steam into the mechanical energy of the blade.
  • Shroud. The shroud reduces the blade’s vibration,which the flowing high-pressure steam can induce through the blades.
  • What is most efficient gas turbine or steam turbine?

    • Gas turbines can deliver either torque or thrust as the work output, while steam turbines almost all the time delivers torque as the work output. • The efficiency of the gas turbines is much higher than the steam turbine due to higher operating temperatures of the gas turbines. (Gas turbines ~1500 0C and steam turbines ~550 0C)

    Were steam turbines ever considered for locomotives?

    The first steam turbine rail locomotive was built in 1908 for the Officine Meccaniche Miani Silvestri Grodona Comi, Milan, Italy. In 1924 Krupp built the steam turbine locomotive T18 001, operational in 1929, for Deutsche Reichsbahn. The main advantages of a steam turbine locomotive are better rotational balance and reduced hammer blow on the track. However, a disadvantage is less flexible output power so that turbine locomotives were best suited for long-haul operations at a constant output