What is the structure of molecular orbital?

Molecular orbital (MO) theory uses a linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) to represent molecular orbitals resulting from bonds between atoms. These are often divided into three types, bonding, antibonding, and non-bonding.

What is the bond order of BF?

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The traditional chemical approaches, Lewis electron dot structures and molecular orbital theory, predict the relative bond orders to be BF < CO < N2. This is quantified by quantum-mechanical calculations that show the bond orders to be ∼1.4, ∼2.6, and ∼3.0, respectively.

How do you read an MOT energy diagram?

When you look at an MO diagram, you can see what AOs are included by checking the outside of the diagram. The middle shows you how they combine and approximately what the energies of the combinations are. You can tell which orbitals are bonding because they have lower energy than the AOs.

What is 2s 2p mixing?

In atoms like Li, Be, B, C, N, the energy difference between 2s and 2p orbitals are quite close as expected and low gap between energy levels of these orbitals causes σ*2s orbital and σ2pz orbital the diatomic molecule formed by mixing these atoms to overlap. This is called “2s-2p mixing”.

What is molecular orbital example?

Molecular orbitals are obtained by combining the atomic orbitals on the atoms in the molecule. Consider the H2 molecule, for example. One of the molecular orbitals in this molecule is constructed by adding the mathematical functions for the two 1s atomic orbitals that come together to form this molecule.

What is molecular orbital theory with example?

For example, e.g. O2 has 6 + 6 = 12 valence electrons which can be placed in bonding and anti-bonding orbitals. Notice that Molecular Orbital Theory predicts that O2 has unpaired electrons, so it will be paramagnetic. Demo: Show that iron metal is paramagnetic – is attracted to a magnet.

Is BF polar or nonpolar?

Figure 7.12. 1 Although all three BF bonds in BF3 are very polar, they are arranged at 120° to each other. The net result is that the three dipole moments (indicated by colored arrows) cancel each other and there is zero dipole moment.

What is bond order BF3?

Bond order of BF3 is 1 ¹/3.

How do you draw an MOT diagram?


  1. Find the valence electron configuration of each atom in the molecule.
  2. Decide if the molecule is homonuclear of heteronuclear.
  3. Fill molecular orbitals using energy and bonding properties of the overlapping atomic orbitals.
  4. Use the diagram to predict properties of the molecule.

What is SP overlapping?

The overlap between one half filled s orbital of one atom and one half filed p orbital of another atom containing electrons with opposite spins is called as s-p overlapping.

Which molecular orbital is lowest in energy?

The LUMO is the lowest energy orbital that has the scope to accept electrons and hence it acts as an electron acceptor and characterizes the susceptibility of the molecule toward attack by nucleophiles.