What is difference between stupa and monastery?
A Stupa consists of detached pillars, towers, and tumuli, all of a sacred or monumental character. The word is a corrupted form of the Sanskrit word stupa, meaning a mound, heap or cairn. Temples – Known as Chaitya halls, or caves. Monasteries – Viharas, being the residences of the priests.
What was the purpose of monasteries and stupas?
The monastery quickly became important and had a three-fold purpose: as a residence for monks, as a center for religious work (on behalf of the laity) and as a center for Buddhist learning.
What is stupas viharas and Chaityas?
Chaitya were the places of worship and assembly of the monks and it consists of stupa within the structure at one end. The Vihara are the monastery where the monks used to live and it acts as their accommodation during the rainy days. They are usually carved out of rocks as cave structures.
What were monasteries and viharas?
vihara, early type of Buddhist monastery consisting of an open court surrounded by open cells accessible through an entrance porch. The viharas in India were originally constructed to shelter the monks during the rainy season, when it became difficult for them to lead the wanderer’s life.
Why are the Buddhist stupas and Chaityas sacred?
The stupa with the traces of its origin to the Buddhist burial mounds was a dome or mound that was hemispherical over the sacred relic. They were considered to be sacred due to the monks. They used to teach the importance of Buddhist culture to the people and were the devotee of Buddha.
Which is the largest stupa in the world?
The tallest is the Jetavanaramaya Stupa located in the ancient city of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka with a height of 120 m (400 ft).
Who built Chaityas and viharas?
The Buddhist architecture is mainly consisting of Chaityas, Viahras, Stupa and Stambhas. The practice of making caves was started during the Mauryan period and reached its zenith during the 2nd century AD under the Satvahana rule.
Which are the two most famous stupas of the world?
Decorated stupas (from 125 BCE)
- Sanchi Stupa No.2, the earliest known stupa with important displays of decorative reliefs, circa 125 BCE.
- East Gateway and Railings of Bharhut Stupa.
- The Great Stupa at Sanchi Decorated toranas built from the 1st c.
- Amaravati stupa, 1st-2nd century CE.
What is the main feature of a stupa?
At its simplest, a stupa is a dirt burial mound faced with stone. In Buddhism, the earliest stupas contained portions of the Buddha’s ashes, and as a result, the stupa began to be associated with the body of the Buddha. Adding the Buddha’s ashes to the mound of dirt activated it with the energy of the Buddha himself.
Who built viharas?
The available data suggests that the Pala ruler Dharmapala founded the vihara. It followed the traditional cruciform plan for the central shrine. There were 177 individual cells around the central courtyard.
What is placed in the Treasury of a stupa?
Jewellery and other “precious” objects are also placed in the treasury. It is not necessary that they be expensive, since it is the symbolic value that is important, not the market price. It is believed that the more objects placed into the stupa, the stronger the energy of the stupa.
Why do stupas have pradakhshina around them?
In Buddhism, circumambulation or pradakhshina has been an important ritual and devotional practice since the earliest times, and stupas always have a pradakhshina path around them. Stupas may have originated as pre-Buddhist tumuli in which śramaṇas were buried in a seated position called chaitya.
Are Buddhist stupa burials pre-historic?
Archaeologists in India have observed that a number of early Buddhist stupas or burials are found in the vicinity of much older, pre-historic burials, including megalithic sites. This includes site associated with the Indus Valley Civilization where broken Indus-era pottery was incorporated into later Buddhist burials.
What is the history of the monastery of Susa?
The newer monastery dates from the 12th – 15th centuries and there are beautiful restored frescoes, the newer and a museum of daily life. The views over the Susa Valley are stunning as is the view of the monastery as you approach it.